When does it end? See our report (Below) , some researchers agree that the Chemtrail program may end in July of 2015. In the meantime, here are some facts that are on public record.
Climate Change (or Global Warming) has become the number one concern in the modern world. At least this is what the mainstream has underlined in bold print in the past decade. Billions of dollars are being poured into scientific studies and atmospheric experiments. Geoengineering Programs are allegedly being secretly conducted world-wide via billion dollar programs like SRM (Solar Radiation Management) with appropriated monies hailing from Climate Change bills and obvious black project funding. Recently there appears to be an acceleration of projects that would make your head spin. The irony is that the public hasn’t heard much about geoengineering , and those who question the EPA or congressional leaders regarding these programs are ridiculed and discredited. I bet most of your friends are unaware of the term climate change, yet over 50 percent of the world’s population has noticed weather instability and have asked themselves “What are those white grid marks in the sky?” This article will detail the dangerous agenda and intentions of world governments regarding climate change and how they are secretly forcing climate change laws into action throughout the world. It’s a money making machine! This article will detail current atmospheric experiments as well as disclose who funds these costly projects around the globe.Who is conducting the experiments and where is the money coming from?
Please feel free to circulate this article! Share it with your friends, family, and of course on social media websites. If this article catches a trolls attention, walk away. This article contains months of research, so let them sit on it for a while before debating the facts with them. Trust me, the heated debates that surround this subject matter are happening in full force and government shills are everywhere causing an unprecedented dissension among activists. Even geoengineers and atmospheric scientists are at each others throats regarding the secrecy of their own unpublished data.
Here are some of the reasons given by the various Scientific Communities & Governments who are endorsing International Climate Experiments, otherwise known as atmospheric testing, weather modification, weather control, etc.
International Governments claim that there will be 9 Billion people on the planet by by 2050 and that in the next 20 years; the world’s middle class will grow from less than 2 billion to over 4 billion, demanding exponential resources.
The potential of Extreme Weather Events and Implications for food production, plant diseases, and pests: therefore the climate must be addressed.
They claim that despite a weak international economy, world energy consumption is soaring.
They claim that we also need to reduce emissions by 80% of today’s levels to avoid the social, environmental and economic impacts of climate change.
In many ways, these are arbitrary, random and vague reasons for spending billions of dollars on climate change experiments that have caused enormous side effects to the overall health of the planet. Although weather modification is nothing new, the awareness of its existence is catching on.
Dr. Walter Russell wrote of weather control in Atomic Suicide 1956.”–give him complete power to cause rains, wherever he desires, on deserts or meadows and to dissipate cyclones while forming.” In 1975, the US and Canada entered into an agreement under the auspices of the United Nations for the exchange of information on weather modification activity. 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, identical bills introduced July 17, 2007, proposed to establish a Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board to fund weather modification research.
Argument against the use of Geoengineering programs are:
- The techniques themselves may cause significant foreseen or unforeseen harm
- Geoengineering pose a great risk to Ozone depletion, notably those involving sulfur delivery into the stratosphere
- Unintended climatic consequences, such as changes to the hydrological cycle of the planet causingdroughts or floods, and extreme weather events.
- Climate experiments are masking a deeper cause regarding warming trends on the planet
- Climate engineering is considered HOSTILE. (In 1976, 85 countries signed the U.N. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques.) Use of geoengineering is hostile.
- It is believed that there would be a significant effect on the appearance of the sky from stratospheric aerosol injection projects, notably a hazing of blue skies and a change in the appearance of sunsets
The OXFORD PRINCIPLES
- Principle 1: Geoengineering to be regulated as a public good
- Principle 2: Public participation in geoengineering decision-making
- Principle 3: Disclosure of geoengineering research and open publication of results
- Principle 4: Independent assessment of impacts
- Governance before deployment
All of these principles have been overlooked, hence those who are experimenting on the planet should be held accountable and imprisoned for their obvious violations, but it’s difficult to arrest the invisible enemy.
“Controlling the weather is not an option, it simply cannot be achieved. In the meantime, a lot of environmental damage is being done, and someone needs to pay. ”
~ Roxy Lopez of TTD
Why not take the money out of the WAR ROOMS and put it into the future technology, solar, clean air, water, food, housing and employment? In 2015, the USA alone had a budget of 3.3 trillion dollars with over 60% earmarked for its MILITARY.
BLLOMBERG REPORT 2015
“The El Nino climate phenomenon is increasing the uncertainty on all markets.”
This is a modal window.
FUNDING: USA on Climate Change Funding
- In the USA, the 2014 Budget proposed approximately $7.9 billion for Clean Energy Technologies.
- Increased Investment in DOE Climate Change Technology activities. The Budget proposed $6.2 billion for clean energy technology programs at the Department of Energy, 44 percent more than the 2013 enacted level.
- The Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a leading sponsor of oceanic and atmospheric research and is one of the key sponsors of climate science capabilities in the Federal government. The 2014 Budget allocates $371 million for the Department of Commerce’s USGCRP efforts, predominantly from NOAA; this represents an increase of $55 million or 17 percent over the FY 2013 enacted level.
- The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) budget includes a sustained investment in climate science, with $1.5 billion proposed for FY 2014. NASA’s Earth Science program conducts first-of-a-kind demonstration flights of sensors in air and space in an effort to foster scientific understanding of the Earth system and to improve the ability to forecast climate change and natural disasters. The 2014 Budget supports several research satellites in development, an initiative to monitor changes in polar ice sheets, enhancements to climate models, and NASA contributions to the USGCRP’s National Climate Assessment. NASA will continue to develop a replacement to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO).
- The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides funding for academic basic research across the entire spectrum of the sciences, engineering, and the social sciences. NSF USGCRP support totals $326 million in the 2014 Budget. • The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on climate modeling and predictability that also involves advancing climate and earth system models with improved resolution and uncertainty quantification; DOE also supports long-term atmospheric and terrestrial research experiments. The 2014 Budget allocates $220 million coordinated through USGCRP, with a $7 million increase over FY 2013 dedicated to major field experiments at Arctic, tropics, and oceanic sites. DOE also partners with NSF to support the Community Earth System Model.
- The 2014 Budget provides $72 million for USGCRP programs in the Department of the Interior, an increase of $14 million or 24 percent over the 2013 funding level. Interior’s lead science agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), funds several programs in coordination with other USGCRP agencies to understand the impacts of climate change on natural resources, including the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, which supports a network of Climate Science Centers (CSCs). The CSC supports development of actionable science linked to resource management decisions on climate adaptation.
Researcher from San Francisco, Peter Kirby has proof of the money trail , as well has declared that “Chemtrails will cease in July 2015”. He has received a lot of heat for this statement when he first made it on the Coast To Coast Radio show in May of 2015.
Key words: (Sciences that are involved in government grant monies, private donations, public donations and Capital Investment contributions, just to name a few.)
Climate science or Climatology is the study of climate
Arctic oscillation (AO), the Northern Pacific (NP) Index
Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO)
* Climate models are used for research of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate.*
Climate engineering aims to reduce global warming. It has two categories of technologies- (CDR) carbon dioxide removal and (SRM) solar radiation management.
LIST of Climate Scientists
This list of climate scientists contains famous or otherwise notable persons who have contributed to the study of Climate Change and the science. Note that the list has been manually compiled, therefore is incomplete. The list includes scientists from several specialties or disciplines.
Ernest Afiesimama, senior associate of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Physics of Weather and Climate Group) and head of numerical weather prediction at Nigerian Meteorological Agency.
Myles Allen, head of the Climate Dynamics group at University of Oxford’s Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics Department. Lead author, IPCC Third Assessment Report. Review editor, Fourth Assessment Report.
Richard Alley (1957- ), American, Earth’s cryosphere and global climate change.
Kevin Anderson, is the Director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and is an adviser to the British Government on climate change.
James Annan, British climatologist with Blue Skies Research, UK
Julie Arblaster, Australian climatologist at The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research in CSIRO
David Archer, American professor of oceanography at University of Chicago
Svante Arrhenius (1859–1927), Swedish, greenhouse effect.
Sallie Baliunas, American, astrophysicist, solar variation.
Robert Balling, American, former director of the Office of Climatology and is a professor of geography at Arizona State University, climatology, global climate change, and geographic information systems.
Édouard Bard, French climate scientist, specialized in past climate reconstruction.
Eric J. Barron (1944- ), American geophysicist, President of Pennsylvania State University
André Berger, (1942- ), Belgian, modeling climatic changes at the geological and at the century time scales.
Richard A. Betts, Head of the Climate Impacts strategic area at the Met Office Hadley Centre.
Jacob Bjerknes, Norwegian-American meteorologist
Vilhelm Bjerknes (1862–1951), Norwegian, forecasting, numerical models.
Bert Bolin (1925-2007), Swedish meteorologist, first chair of the IPCC
Gerard C. Bond (1940-2005) American geologist and paleoclimate researcher
Jason Box, American professor of glaciology at Ohio State University
Raymond S. Bradley, American, historical temperatures, paleoclimatology, and climate variability.
Keith Briffa (1952- ), United Kingdom, dendrochronology, temperature history.
Wallace Smith Broecker (1931- ), American, Pleistocene geochronology, radiocarbon dating, and chemical oceanography.
Harold E. Brooks (1959- ), American meteorologist, severe convective storm and tornado climatology as well as conducive atmospheric environments
Keith Browning, British meteorologist; mesoscale meteorology, sparkles
Ken Caldeira, .American, climate engineering, ocean acidification, atmospheric chemistry.
Guy Stewart Callendar, English,(February 1898 – October 1964), steam engineer and inventor who proposed what eventually became known as the Callendar effect, the theory that linked rising carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere to global temperature.
Mark Cane, American, modeling and prediction of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
Anny Cazenave, French oceanographer specializing in satellite altimetry.
Robert D. Cess, American atmospheric scientist, emeritus professor at Stony Brook University.
Jule G. Charney (1917-1981) American meteorologist, pioneer in numerical weather modeling
John Christy, director of the Earth System Science Center at The University of Alabama in Huntsville. Best known (with Dr. Roy Spencer) for developing the first version of the satellite temperature record.
John A. Church (1951- ), Australian oceanographer, chair of the [World Climate Research Programme]
Ralph J. Cicerone (1943- ), American atmospheric chemist, President of U.S. National Academy of Sciences
Mat Collins, Joint Met Office Chair in Climate, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter. Quantifying uncertainty in climate projections, dynamics of the El Nino Southern Oscillation, global and regional hydrological cycle changes, Indian Monsoon across multiple time scales, stochastic parameterisation, Arctic predictability.
Harmon Craig (1926-2003), pioneering American geochemist
Paul J. Crutzen (1933- ), Dutch, stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and their role in the biogeochemical cycles and climate.
Heidi Cullen, American meteorologist, chief scientist for Climate Central
Balfour Currie OC (1902-1981), Canadian climatologist at University of Saskatchewan
Judith Curry American climatologist and chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology
DWilli Dansgaard, Danish climatologist
Scott Denning, American atmospheric scientist and professor at Colorado State University
Andrew Dessler, American atmospheric scientist and professor at Texas A&M University
Robert E. Dickinson. American climatologist, professor at University of Texas at Austin
Mark Dyurgerov (died 2009), Russian-American glaciologist
Sylvia Earle (1935- ), American marine biologist
Arnt Eliassen dynamic meteorologist
Kerry Emanuel (1955- ), American, atmospheric dynamics specializing in hurricanes.
Matthew England (1966-), Australian, physical oceanographer and climate dynamicist.
Ian G. Enting, Australian mathematical physicist at University of Melbourne
Joe Farman, British, ozone hole above Antarctica
Christopher Field, American climate scientist with the Carnegie Institution for Science
Piers Forster, British professor of Physical Climate Change at University of Leeds
Joseph Fourier (1768–1830), French, greenhouse effect.
Jennifer Francis Climate change in the Arctic
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), first mapped the course of the Gulf Stream for use in sending mail from the United States to Europe
Chris Freeman, Welsh professor of biogeochemistry
Inez Fung American, climate modeling, biogeochemical cycles, and climate change.
Yevgraf Yevgrafovich Fyodorov (1880-1965), Russian climatologist
Francis Galton (1822-1911), coined the term anticyclone
Jonathan M. Gregory, British climate modeler, senior scientist at Reading University
Filippo Giorgi (1959- ), Italian atmospheric physicist, International Centre for Theoretical Physics
Peter Gleick (1956- ), American, hydroclimatologist, hydrologic impacts of climate change, snowfall/snowmelt responses, water adaptation strategies, consequences of sea-level rise
Jonathan M. Gregory, British, professor at University of Reading
Jean M. Grove (d. 1927-2001), British, glaciologist; the Little Ice Age
Joanna Haigh, (1954- ) British, solar variability
Edmund Halley, published a map of the trade winds in 1686 after a voyage to the southern hemisphere.
James E. Hansen (1941- ), American, planetary atmospheres, remote sensing, numerical models, and global warming.
Kenneth Hare OC FRSC (1919-2002), Canadian climatologist
Stephan Harrison, Associate Professor of Quaternary Science, University of Exeter. Geomorphological responses to climate change.
Katharine Hayhoe, Canadian, Atmospheric science, global climate models.
Gabriele C. Hegerl (1963 – ), Professor of Climate System Science at the University of Edinburgh School of GeoSciences.
Isaac Held, German-American atmospheric physicist, researcher at GFDL
Ann Henderson-Sellers (1952- ), Australian, climate change risk evaluation.
David A. Hodell, (1958- ), British paleoclimatologist, professor at Cambridge University
Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Australian oceanographer at University of Queensland
Greg Holland Australian meteorology researcher at NCAR
Brian Hoskins, British climatologist and professor at University of Reading
John T. Houghton (1931- ), British, atmospheric physics, remote sensing.
Malcolm K. Hughes, British meso-climatologist, professor at University of Arizona
Mike Hulme (1960- ), British, climate impacts, climate modelling, climate and culture.
Thomas Sterry Hunt (1826-1892), American, first scientist to connect carbon dioxide to climate change
Eystein Jansen (1953- ), Norwegian professor of paleoceanography at University of Bergen
Phil Jones (1952- ), British, instrumental climate change, palaeoclimatology, detection of climate change.
Jean Jouzel, French, glaciologist and climatologist specializing in major climatic shifts
Daniel Kammen, American professor of Energy at University of California, Berkeley
Lewis D. Kaplan, early modeler of carbon-dioxide greenhouse effect
Thomas R. Karl (1951- ), American, climate extremes and variability.
David Karoly, Australian professor of meteorology at University of Melbourne
Charles David Keeling (1928–2005), American, atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements, Keeling Curve.
Ralph Keeling, American professor of Atmospheric Chemistry at Scripps Institution of Oceanography
David W. Keith, Canadian, Geoengineering and CO2 capture and storage research, University Professor at SEAS and Harvard Kennedy School
Joseph B. Klemp, American atmospheric scientist at NCAR
Kirill Y. Kondratyev (1920-2006), Russian atmospheric physicist
Thomas Knutson, American climate modeller, researcher at GFDL
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), Chinese scientist who inferred that climates naturally shifted over an enormous span of time, after observing petrified bamboos found underground near Yanzhou (modern day Yan’an, Shaanxi province), a dry-climate area unsuitable for the growth of bamboo
John E. Kutzbach, American climatologist, professor emeritus at University of Wisconsin–Madison
Dmitry Lachinov (1842-1902), Russian climatologist and engineer
Hubert Lamb (1913-1997), British climatologist, founder of the Climatic Research Unit at University of East Anglia
Kurt Lambeck, Australian, cryosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere interactions, and sea level rise and its impact on human populations.
Helmut Landsberg (1906-1985), German-American, fostered the use of statistical analysis in climatology, which led to its evolution into a physical science
Mojib Latif (born 1954), German, meteorology and oceanography, climate modelling
Anders Levermann, German professor of climate dynamics at University of Potsdam
Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Hydroclimatology
Richard Lindzen (1940- ), American, dynamic meteorology, especially planetary waves.
Diana Liverman (1954-), American/British, climate impacts, vulnerability and policy
Michael Lockwood, British professor of physics at Reading University
Edward Norton Lorenz (1917–2008), American, discovery of the strange attractor notion and coined the term butterfly effect.
Claude Lorius, French glaciologist, director emeritus of CNRS
James Lovelock (1919- ), British, Gaia hypothesis and biotic feedbacks.
James R. Luyten, American, physical oceanographer, director emeritus of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; ocean dynamics
Michael MacCracken (1942- ), American, Chief Scientist at the Climate Institute in Washington, DC.
Gordon J.F. MacDonald (1929-2002) was an American physicist who developed one of the first computational models of climate change, and was an early advocate for governmental action.
Jerry D. Mahlman (1940-2012) was an American meteorologist and climatologist and a pioneer in the use of computational models of the atmosphere to examine the interactions between atmospheric chemistry and physics.
Syukuro Manabe (1931- ), Japanese, professor Princeton University, pioneered the use of computers to simulate global climate change and natural climate variations.
Gordon Manley (1902–1980), English, Central England temperature (CET) series.
Michael E. Mann (1965- ), American, Distinguished Professor of Meteorology and Director, Earth System Science Center, Penn State U. Climate variability and paleoclimate reconstructions; see Hockey stick graph.
David Marshall, British physical oceanographer at the University of Oxford.
Gordon McBean, Canadian, boundary layer research, hydrometeorology and environmental impact research, and weather forecasting.
James J. McCarthy, American professor of Biological Oceanography at Harvard University
Christopher McKay, American planetary scientist at NASA Ames Research Center
Marcia McNutt, American geophysicist, Editor-in-Chief of Science
Carl Mears, American, Senior Scientist at Remote Sensing Systems
Gerald A. Meehl (1951-), American climatologist at NCAR.
Patrick Michaels (1950- ), American climatologist.
Milutin Milanković (1879–1958), Serbian, Milankovitch cycles.
John F. B. Mitchell, British, climate modelling and detection and attribution of climate change
Fritz Möller (1906-1983), German, early modeling of CO2 greenhouse effect
Mario J. Molina (1943- ), Mexican, atmospheric chemistry and ozone depletion.
Philip Mote Director, Oregon Climate Change Research Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
Richard A. Muller (1944- ), American physicist, head of the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project, formerly an outspoken critic of current climate change science.
- E. Munn FRSC (1919-2013), Canadian climatologist
Atsumu Ohmura (1942- ), Japanese climatologist, professor emeritus at ETH Zurich
Gerald North (1938- ) American atmospheric scientist at Texas A&M and author of the North Report.
Hans Oeschger (1927-1998), German paleoclimatologist and isotope chemist
Abraham H Oort
Michael Oppenheimer, American professor of geosciences at Princeton University
Timothy Osborn, British professor of Climate Science at University of East Anglia
Tim Palmer CBE FRS (1952- ), British mathematical physicist, climate modeler at Oxford University
David E. Parker, British, surface temperature trend.
Fyodor Panayev (1856-1933), Russian climatologist
Graeme Pearman OA FAAS (1941- ), Australian climatologist
William Richard Peltier (1943- ), Canadian, global geodynamic modeling and ice sheet reconstructions; atmospheric and oceanic waves and turbulence.
Jean Robert Petit, French paleoclimatologist, emeritus director of research at Centre national de la recherche scientifique
David Phillips OC (1944- ), Canadian climatologist and meteorologist
Roger A. Pielke, Sr. (1946-), American, climate change, environmental vulnerability, numerical modeling, and atmospheric dynamics.
Raymond Pierrehumbert, idealized climate modeling, Faint young sun paradox.
Andrew Pitman (1964- ), British, terrestrial processes in global and regional climate modelling, model evaluation and earth systems approaches to understanding climate change.
Gilbert Plass (1920-2004), Canadian. CO2 greenhouse effect and AGW.
Henry Pollack, American emeritus professor of geophysics at University of Michigan.
Vicky Pope, British, Head of the Climate Prediction Programme at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research.
Detlef Quadfasel, German professor of Geophysics at Niels Bohr Institute
Corinne Le Quéré,Canadian/UK, Director of Tyndall Center for Climate Change
Stefan Rahmstorf (1960- ), German, the role of ocean currents in climate change.
Veerabhadran Ramanathan, Indian, general circulation models, atmospheric chemistry, and radiative transfer.
Ichtiaque S. Rasool, (1930-), former Chief Scientist for Global Change at NASA
Michael Raupach (1950-2015), Australian climatologist, formerly of CSIRO and was director of the Climate Change program at Australian National University
Maureen Raymo, American, paleoclimatologist.
Roger Revelle (1909–1991), American, global warming and chemical oceanography.
Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) English mathematician and meteorologist
Eric Rignot, American professor of Earth System Science at University of California, Irvine
Alan Robock (1941- ), American climatologist, professor at Rutgers University
Joseph J. Romm (1960- ), American author, blogger, physicist and climate expert.
Carl-Gustaf Rossby (1898-1957), Swedish-American climatologist
Frank Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012), American atmospheric chemist at University of California, Irvine
William Ruddiman, American, palaeoclimatologist, Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis
Steve Running, American global ecologist at University of Montana
Jim Salinger, New Zealand climatologist
Dork Sahagian Armenian-American, Lehigh University
Ben Santer (1955-), climatologist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Hans Joachim Schellnhuber (1950 – ), German climatologist, was an author for the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
David Schindler, Canadian-American environmental chemist, professor of Ecology at University of Alberta
Michael Schlesinger, American professor of Atmospheric Sciences at UIUC
William H. Schlesinger (1950- ), American biogeochemist, former Dean of the Nicholas School at Duke University
Gavin A. Schmidt, American climatologist and climate modeler at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).
Stephen H. Schneider (1945–2010), American, Professor of Environmental Biology and Global Change at Stanford University.
Justin Schoof, American, ice-sheet dynamics
Stephen E. Schwartz (1941 – ), American, chemistry of air pollutants, radiative forcing of aerosols on climate.
Wolfgang Seiler (1940-), German climatologist, Director of the Institute of Meteorology and Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
John H. Seinfeld, American atmosperic chemist at California Institute of Technology
Sir Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006), British paleoclimatologist at Cambridge University
- Marshall Shepherd American professor of meteorology at University of Georgia
Steven Sherwood, Director, Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales
Drew Shindell, American atmospheric chemist, professor of Climate Sciences at Duke University
Keith Shine, Regius Professor of Meteorology and Climate Science at the University of Reading
Jagdish Shukla (1944- ), Indian-American climatologist, Distinguished University Professor at George Mason University
Joanne Simpson (1923-2010), American meteorologist
Julia Slingo (1950 – ), Chief Scientist at the Met Office since 2009 and former Director of Climate Research in NERC’s National Centre for Atmospheric Science, at the University of Reading
Joseph Smagorinsky (1924-2005), American meteorologist; first head of NOAA GFDL
Susan Solomon (1956 – ), American, chlorofluorocarbons and ozone depletion.
Richard C. J. Somerville (1941- ), American climatologist, Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Kozma Spassky-Avtonomov (1807-1890), Russian climatologist
Roy Spencer (scientist), climatologist, Principal Research Scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville
Konrad Steffen (1952- ), Swiss-American glaciologist at University of Colorado Boulder
Will Steffen (1947- ), Australian climatologist, science advisor to Australian government.
Thomas Stocker, Swiss, climate dynamics and paleoclimate modeling and reconstruction.
Hans von Storch (born 1949), German, meteorology – Director of the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany
Peter A. Stott, British, climate scientist .
Ronald J. Stouffer, American, senior research climatologist and group head of the Climate and Ecosystems Group at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
Hans E. Suess (1909–1993), Austrian, radiocarbon dating, Suess effect.
Henrik Svensmark, Professor in the Division of Solar System Physics at the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space) in Copenhagen.
Simon Tett, British, detection and attribution of climate change, model initialization, and validation.
Peter Thejll (1956- ), Danish, Northern Hemisphere land air temperature, solar variation and greenhouse effect
Peter Thorne, British climatologist with the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen, Norway
Lonnie Thompson (1948- ), American, paleoclimatology, ice cores.
Micha Tomkiewicz (1939- ), American, democratizing climate change, facilitating required energy transition, professor at Brooklyn College, City University of New York.
Owen Toon, American professor of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences at University of Colorado Boulder
Kevin E. Trenberth, decadal variability, El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
John Tyndall (1820-1893), British, measured radiative effect of greenhouse gases, postulated greenhouse effect hypothesis of climate change
David Vaughan – ice sheets, British Antarctic Survey.
Pier Vellinga (1950- ), Dutch climatologist, professor at Wageningen University
Ricardo Villalba, Argentine paleoclimatologist.
Peter Wadhams ScD (1948- ), is professor of Ocean Physics, and Head of the Polar Ocean Physics Group in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge. He is best known for his work on sea ice.
Warren M. Washington (1936- ), American, climate modelling.
John Michael Wallace, North Atlantic oscillation, Arctic oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
Andrew Watson (1952-), British, marine and atmospheric sciences.
Sir Robert Watson, British scientist and Chief Scientist for the World Bank
Andrew J. Weaver, Canadian, climate modeling and analysis.
Harry Wexler (1911-1962), American meteorologist
Penny Whetton, Australian, regional climate change projections for Australia. A lead author of the IPCC third and fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change.
Tom Wigley, Australian climatologist at University of Adelaide
Josh Willis, American oceanographer at NASA’s JPL
David Wratt, new Zeelander, Chief Scientist at NIWA
Carl Wunsch (1941- ), Physical oceanography and ocean acoustic tomography.
Olga Zolina (1975- ), Russian climatologist
Eduardo Zorita (1961- ), Spanish paleoclimatologist, Senior Scientist at GKSS
We present to our readers just one of the many agendas, a white paper entitled “Knowledge management and global climate change regime negotiations” A link to the entire paper is available at the end of this article.” The paper was written in 2015
Some of the studies reflect “Purpose”
– The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the important factors that negotiators and policy-makers need to take into account while putting their strategies to negotiate global climate change regimes.
Apparently, global negotiations have failed (Climate Scientists) in the past:
“Without deep understanding of why some international negotiations related to climate change have previously failed, it is difficult to successfully negotiate them in the future. Flexibility and openness during negotiations and to consider the views and concerns of all global actors in finding optimum solutions and cooperation are among the many essential factors that bring the world leaders into a compromise agreement and a global climate change regime. Knowledge management including taking into account the discussed factors may help the negotiators and public to be more prepared to understand the obstacles that may complicate negotiating the international climate change regimes.”
In other words, International governments need to be more convincing as to Climate remediation and the billions of dollars they need in studies ALONE.
They claim to have ‘practical implications’.
– This paper has practical implications as it combines the theories of international relations with practical evidences from previous Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
They are targeting young scientists, as well as to young policy-makers.
– This paper is an essential read to students and young scientists, as well as to young policy-makers within the environmental politics.
Download the citation here: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1108%2FFS-11-2013-0066
Other climate change studies in 2013-15 include the following:
SPARC (Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate)2014
- SPARC facilitates research and highlights to the climate research and NWP communities the importance of stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes in the climate system
- The scientific goals of SPARC are currently encapsulated within three main themes: – Detection, attribution, and prediction of stratospheric change – Chemistry–climate interactions – Stratosphere–troposphere dynamical coupling
Nature Geoscience (Physical processes in the tropical tropopause layer and their roles in a changing climate) 2013
For over 5000 Climate Change studies, and 100 pages of Google sitings, see https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Stratospheric+Processes+And+their+Role+in+Climate++2015&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C3&as_vis=1
- Geoengineering FORCING Uniformly (2007)
- They infer that nano particles can cool the planet.
“Exploring the geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulfate aerosols: The role of particle size:
Aerosols produced in the lower stratosphere can brighten the planet and counteract some of the effects of global warming. We explore scenarios in which the amount of precursors and the size of the aerosol are varied to assess their interactions with the climate system. Stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes change in response to greenhouse gas forcing and respond to geoengineering by aerosols. Nonlinear feedbacks influence the amount of aerosol required to counteract the warming. More aerosol precursor must be injected than would be needed if stratosphere troposphere exchange processes did not change in response to greenhouse gases or aerosols. Aerosol particle size has an important role in modulating the energy budget. A prediction of aerosol size requires a much more complex representation and assumptions about the delivery mechanism beyond the scope of this study, so we explore the response when particle size is prescribed. More aerosol is required to counteract greenhouse warming if aerosol particles are as large as those seen during volcanic eruptions (compared to the smaller aerosols found in quiescent conditions) because the larger particles are less effective at scattering incoming energy, and trap some outgoing energy. About 1.5 Tg S/yr are found to balance a doubling of CO2 if the particles are small, while perhaps double that may be needed if the particles reach the size seen following eruptions.”
Citation: Cicerone, R. J. (2006), Geoengineering: Encouraging research and overseeing implementation, Clim. Change, 77, 221–226, doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9102-x.
CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 28
Artificially cooling the planet
Radiative Forcing Experiments “We partly agree with the OLRSH conclusion that our values of stratospheric cooling were, in the context of the simple experiment we performed, an overestimate.”
This work is supported by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich. The work was partially supported by INTAS (grant INTAS-01-0432) and Russian Fund of Fundamental Researches (grant N65-399). We thank L. Hood, K. Labitzke and R. van Dorland for providing their results, C. Hoyle for editing the manuscript and two reviewers for their helpful comments.
Stratospheric connection to Northern Hemisphere wintertime weather: Implications for prediction
DWJ Thompson, MP Baldwin, JM Wallace – Journal of Climate, 2002 – journals.ametsoc.org
… Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC): Proc … Salby, 1990: Coupling of the
quasi-biennial oscillation and the extratropical circulation in the stratosphere through planetary …
Quiroz , RS, 1977: Tropospheric-stratospheric polar vortex breakdown of January 1977 …
Cited by 263 Related articles All 10 versions Cite Save
[PDF] from noaa.gov
Stratospheric sensitivity to perturbations in ozone and carbon dioxide: Radiative and dynamical response
SB Fels, JD Mahlman… – Journal of the …, 1980 – journals.ametsoc.org
… KP Shine. (1986) On the modelled thermal response of the Antarctic stratosphere to a depletion
of ozone. … (1986) Three-dimensional simulations of stratospheric N 2 O: Predictions for other trace
constituents. … (1985) Transport processes and ozone perturbations. …
Cited by 269 Related articles All 5 versions Cite Save
The impact of stratospheric ozone recovery on the Southern Hemisphere westerly jet
SW Son, LM Polvani, DW Waugh, H Akiyoshi, R Garcia… – Science, 2008 – sciencemag.org
… issue, we examine the predictions of the CCMVal activity of the “stratospheric processes and
their … below, the CCMVal models have a high vertical resolution in the stratosphere, a model top
located above the stratopause (∼50 km), and fully interactive stratospheric chemistry. …
Cited by 209 Related articles All 7 versions Cite Save
[HTML] from wiley.com
[HTML] Chemical and dynamical response to the 11‐year variability of the solar irradiance simulated with a chemistry‐climate model
T Egorova, E Rozanov, E Manzini… – Geophysical …, 2004 – Wiley Online Library
… In the stratosphere our results still disagree with the ozone response obtained from
the analysis of satellite data [Hood, 2003; Stratospheric Processes and their Role in
the Climate (SPARC), 1998]. Figure 1b illustrates substantial …
Cited by 119 Related articles All 14 versions Cite Save
[HTML] from nature.com
Large climate-induced changes in ultraviolet index and stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux
MI Hegglin, TG Shepherd – Nature Geoscience, 2009 – nature.com
… stratospheric chemistry, radiation scheme and representation of the relevant physical processes
in a fully … | Article; Olsen, MA, Schoeberl, MR & Douglass, AR Stratosphere–troposphere exchange …
Tungsten-185 from Nuclear Bomb Tests as a Tracer for Stratospheric Meteorology …
Cited by 149 Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save
[PDF] from psu.edu
Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming
S Solomon, KH Rosenlof, RW Portmann, JS Daniel… – Science, 2010 – sciencemag.org
… 113,WMO/TD No. 1043S, SPARC Report No. 2, Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate
(SPARC) project, World Meteorological Organization, Paris, 2000]. … al. ., Stratospheric water vapor
increases over the past half-century. Geophys. Res. … stratosphere. QJR Meteorol. …
Cited by 433 Related articles All 28 versions Cite Save
[PDF] from columbia.edu
Downward coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere: the relative roles of wave and zonal mean processes*
J Perlwitz, N Harnik – Journal of climate, 2004 – journals.ametsoc.org
… Furthermore, we find that for the downward interaction, the two processes dominate during different
years, depending on the state of the stratosphere. Winters characterized by a stratospheric basic
state that is reflective for wave 1 show a strong relationship for wave-1 …
IPCC AR4 (the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report) process, improve understanding of climate, and to provide estimates of future climate change that will be useful to those considering its possible consequences. : http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/projects/cmip/
Numerical Experiments on Internal Interannual Variations of the Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled System: http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/SPARC/News16/16_yoden.html
Baldwin, M.P., 2000: The Arctic Oscillation and its role in stratosphere-troposphere coupling. SPARC newsletter, 14, 10-14.
Benzi, R., G. Parisi, A. Sutera and A. Vulpiani, 1982: Stochastic resonance in climatic change. Tellus, 34, 10-16.
Hartmann, D.L., J.M. Wallace, V. Limpasuvan, D.W.J. Thompson and J.R. Holton, 2000: Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Proceedings NAS, 97, 1412-1417.
Holton, J.R. and C. Mass, 1976: Stratospheric vacillation cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2218-2225.
Hoskins, B.J., 1983: Dynamical processes in the atmosphere and the use of models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 109, 1-21.
Matsuno, T., 1971: A dynamical model of the stratospheric sudden warming. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 1479-1494.
Palmer, T.N., 1999: A non-linear dynamical perspective on climate prediction. J. Climate, 12, 575-591.
Scott, R.K. and P.H. Haynes, 1998: Internal interannual variability of the extratropical stratospheric circulation: The low-latitude flywheel. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124, 2149-2173.
Taguchi, M., T. Yamaga and S. Yoden, 2000: Internal variability of the troposphere-stratosphere coupled system in a simple global circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., submitted.
Taguchi, M., and S. Yoden, 2000a: Internal intraseasonal and interannual variations of the troposphere-stratosphere coupled system in a simple global circulation model. Part I: Parameter sweep experiment (to be submitted to J. Atmos. Sci.)
Taguchi, M., and S. Yoden, 2000b: Internal intraseasonal and interannual variations of the troposphere-stratosphere coupled system in a simple global circulation model. Part II: Millennium integrations (to be submitted to J. Atmos. Sci.)
Yoden, S., 1987: Bifurcation properties of a stratospheric vacillation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1723-1733.
Yoden, S., 1990: An illustrative model of seasonal and interannual variations of the stratospheric circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1845-1853.
Yoden, S., 1997: Classification of simple low-order models in geophysical fluid dynamics and climate dynamics. Non-linear Analysis, Theory, Methods & Applications, 30, 4607-4618.
- Folkins, I.& Martin, R. V. The vertical structure of tropical convection and its impact on the budgets of water vapor and ozone. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1560–1573 (2005).
- Danielsen, E. F.In situ evidence of rapid, vertical, irreversible transport of lower tropospheric air into the lower tropical stratosphere by convective cloud turrets and by larger-scale upwelling in tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. 98, 8665–8681 (1993).
- Zipser, E. J.,Cecil, D. J., Liu, C., Nesbitt, S. W. & Yorty, D. P. Where are the most intense thunderstorms on earth? Am. Meteor. Soc. 87, 1057–1071 (2006).
- De Reus, M.et al. Evidence for ice particles in the tropical stratosphere from in situmeasurements. Phys. Chem. 9, 6775–6792 (2009).
- Gettelman, A.& Forster, P. M. de F. A climatology of the tropical tropopause layer. Met. Soc. Japan 80, 911–924 (2002).
- Fu, Q.,Hu, Y. X. & Yang, Q. Identifying the top of the tropical tropopause layer from vertical mass flux analysis and CALIPSO lidar cloud observations. Res. Lett. 34, L14813(2007).
- Fueglistaler, S.et al. Tropical tropopause layer. Geophys. 47, 1–31 (2009).
- Brewer, A. M.Evidence for a world circulation provided by the measurements of helium and water vapor distribution in the stratosphere. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 351–363 (1949).
- Mote, P. W.et al. An atmospheric tape recorder: The imprinting of tropical tropopause temperatures on stratospheric water vapor. Geophys. Res. 101, 3989–4006 (1996).
- Rosenlof, K. H.,Tuck, A. F., Kelly, K. K., Russell, J. M. & McCormick, M. P. Hemispheric asymmetries in water vapor and inferences about transport in the lower stratosphere. Geophys. Res. 102, 13213–13234 (1997).
- Randel, W. J.,Seidel, D. J. & Pan, L. L. Observational characteristics of double tropopauses. Geophys. Res. 112, D07309 (2007).
- Pan, L. L.et al. Tropospheric intrusions associated with the secondary tropopause. Geophys. Res. 114, D10302 (2009).
- Marcy, T. P.et al. Measurements of trace gases in the tropical tropopause layer. Environ. 41, 7253–7261 (2007).
- Santee, M. L.et al. Trace gas evolution in the lowermost stratosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements. Geophys. Res. 116, D18306 (2011).
- Konopka, P.,Grooss, J.-U., Plöger, F. & Müller, R. Annual cycle of horizontal in-mixing into the lower tropical stratosphere. Geophys. Res. 114, D19111 (2009).
- Wang, P-H.,Minnis, P., McCormick, M. P., Kent, G. S. & Skeens, K. M. A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment II observations (1985–1990). Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29429 (1996).
- Sassen, K.,Wang, Z. & Liu, D. Cirrus clouds and deep convection in the tropics: Insights from CALIPSO and CloudSat. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H06 (2009).
- Stephens, G. L.Cloud feedbacks in the climate system: A critical review. Clim. 18,237–273 (2005).
- Winker, D. M.,Hunt, W. H. & McGill, M. J. Initial performance assessment of CALIPSO. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
- Pan, L. L.& Munchak, L. A. Relationship of cloud top to the tropopause and jet structure from CALIPSO data. Geophys. Res. 116, D12201 (2011).
- Virts, K. S.,Wallace, J. M., Fu, Q. & Ackerman, T. P. Tropical tropopause transition layer cirrus as represented by CALIPSO lidar observations. Atmos. Sci. 67, 3113–3129 (2010).
- Virts, K. S.& Wallace, J. M. Annual, interannual and intraseasonal variability of tropical tropopause transition layer cirrus. Atmos. Sci. 67, 3097–3112 (2010).
- Soden, B. J.et al. Quantifying climate feedbacks using radiative kernels. Clim. 21,3504–3520 (2008).
- Hartmann, D. L.& Larson, K. An important constraint on tropical cloud-climate feedback. Res. Lett. 29, 1951 (2002).
- Harrop, B. E.& Hartmann, D. L. Testing the role of radiation in determining tropical cloud top temperature. Clim. 25, 5731–5747 (2012).
- Haynes, P. H.,Marks, C. J., McIntyre, M. E., Shepherd, T. G. & Shine, K. P. On the “downward control” of extratropical diabatic circulations by eddy-induced mean zonal forces. Atmos. Sci. 48, 651–678 (1991).
- Plumb, R. A.& Eluszkiewicz, J. The Brewer-Dobson circulation: dynamics of the tropical upwelling. Atmos. Sci. 56, 868–890 (1999).
- Randel, W. J.,Garcia, R. & Wu, F. Dynamical balances and tropical stratospheric upwelling. Atmos. Sci. 65, 3584–3595 (2008).
- Calvo, N.,Garcia, R. R., Randel, W. J. & Marsh, D. Dynamical mechanism for the increase in tropical upwelling in the lowermost tropical stratosphere during warm ENSO events. Atmos. Sci. 67, 2331–2340 (2010).
- Garcia, R. R.& Randel, W. J. Acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation due to increases in greenhouse gases. Atmos. Sci. 65, 2731–2739 (2008).
- Shepherd, T. G.& McLandress, C. A robust mechanism for strengthening of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in response to climate change: critical-layer control of subtropical wave breaking. Atmos. Sci. 68, 784–797 (2011).
- Yulaeva, E.,Holton, J. R. & Wallace, J. M. On the cause of the annual cycle in the tropical lower stratospheric temperature. Atmos. Sci. 51, 169–174 (1994).
- Holton, J. R.et al. Stratosphere–troposphere exchange. Geophys. 33, 403–439 (1995).
- Taguchi, M.Wave driving in the tropical lower stratosphere as simulated by WACCM. Part I: annual cycle. Atmos. Sci. 66, 2029–2043 (2009).
- Chen, G.& Sun, L. Mechanisms of the tropical upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation: the role of extratropical waves. Atmos. Sci. 68, 2878–2892 (2011).
- Garney, H.,Dameris, M., Randel, W. J., Bodeker, G. E. & Deckert, R. Dynamically forced increase of tropical upwelling in the lower stratosphere. Atmos. Sci. 68, 1214–1233(2011).
- Boehm, M. T.& Lee, S. The implications of tropical Rossby waves for tropical tropopause cirrus formation and for the equatorial upwelling of the Brewer–Dobson circulation. Atmos. Sci. 60, 247–261 (2003).
- Norton, W. A.Tropical wave driving of the annual cycle in tropical tropopause temperatures. Part II: Model results. Atmos. Sci. 63, 1420–1431 (2006).
- Ryu, J.-H.& Lee, S. Effect of tropical waves on the tropical tropopause transition layer upwelling. Atmos. Sci. 67, 3130–3148 (2010).
- Fueglistaler, S.,Haynes, P. H. & and Forster, P. M. The annual cycle in lower stratospheric temperatures revisited. Chem. Phys. 11, 3701–3711 (2011).
- Polvani, L. M.& Solomon, S. The signature of ozone depletion on tropical temperature trends, as revealed by their seasonal cycle in model integrations with single forcings. Geophys. Res. 117, D17102 (2012).
- Konopka, P.et al. Annual cycle of ozone at and above the tropical tropopause: observations versus simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). Chem. Phys. 10, 121–132 (2010).
- Ploeger, F.et al. Horizontal transport affecting trace gas seasonality in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Geophys. Res. 117, D09303 (2012).
- Gettelman, A.& Birner, T. Insights into Tropical Tropopause Layer processes using global models. Geophys. Res. 112, D23104 (2007).
- James, R.,Bonazzola, M., Legras, B., Subled, K. & Fueglistaler, K. Water vapor transport and dehydration above convective outflow during Asian monsoon. Res. Lett. 35,L20810 (2008).
- Bergman, J. W.,Jensen, E. J., Pfister, L. & Yang, Q. Seasonal differences of vertical-transport efficiency in the tropical tropopause layer: On the interplay between tropical deep convection, large-scale vertical ascent, and horizontal circulations. Geophys. Res. 117,D05302 (2012).
- Adler, R. F.& Mack, R. A. Thunderstorm cloud top dynamics as inferred from satellite observations and a cloud parcel model. Atmos. Sci. 43, 1945–1960 (1986).
- Yang, Q.,Fu, Q. & Hu, Y. Radiative impacts of clouds in the tropical tropopause layer. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H12 (2010).
- Levine, J. G.,Braesicke, P., Harris, N. R. P., Savage, N. H. & Pyle, J. A. Pathways and timescales for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport via the tropical tropopause layer and their relevance for very short lived substances. Geophys. Res. 112, D04308 (2007).
- Aschmann, J.,Sinnhuber, B. M., Atlas, E. L. & Schauffler, S. M. Modeling the transport of very short-lived substances into the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Chem. Phys. 9, 9237–9247 (2009).
- Jensen, E. J.,Ackerman, A. S. & Smith, J. A. Can overshooting convection dehydrate the tropical tropopause layer? Geophys. Res. 112, D11209 (2007).
- Sherwood, S. C.& Dessler, A. E., On the control of stratospheric humidity. Res. Lett. 27, 2513–2516 (2000).
- Corti, T.et al. Unprecedented evidence for deep convection hydrating the tropical stratosphere. Res. Lett. 35, L10810 (2008).
- Khaykin, S.et al. Hydration of the lower stratosphere by ice crystal geysers over land convective systems. Chem. Phys. 9, 2275–2287 (2009).
- Hanisco, T. F.et al. Observations of deep convective influence on stratospheric water vapor and its isotopic composition. Res. Lett. 34, L04814 (2007).
- Randel, W. J.et al. Global variations of HDO and HDO/H2O ratios in the UTLS derived from ACE-FTS satellite measurements. Geophys. Res. 117, D06303 (2012).
- Dessler, A. E.& Sherwood, S. C. A model of HDO in the tropical tropopause layer. Chem. Phys. 3, 2173–2181 (2003).
- Grosvenor, D. P.,Choularton, T. W., Coe, H. & Held, G. A study of the effect of overshooting deep convection on the water content of the TTL and lower stratosphere from Cloud Resolving Model simulations. Chem. Phys. 7, 4977–5002 (2007).
- Schiller, C.et al. Hydration and dehydration at the tropical tropopause. Chem. Phys.9, 9647–9660 (2009).
- Wright, J. S.,Fu, R., Fueglistaler, S., Liu, Y. S. & Zhang, Y., The influence of summertime convection over Southeast Asia on water vapor in the tropical stratosphere. Geophys. Res. 116, D12302 (2011).
- Pommereau, J-P.et al. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign. Chem. Phys. 11,2309–2339 (2011).
- Minnis, P.,Yost, C. R., Sun-Mack, S. & Chen, Y. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data. Res. Lett. 35, L12801 (2008).
- Liu, C.& Zipser, E. J. Global distribution of tropical deep convection: Different perspectives from TRMM infrared and radar data. Clim. 20, 489–503 (2007).
- Takahashi, H.& Luo, Z. Where is the level of neutral buoyancy for deep convection? Res. Lett. 39, L15809 (2012).
- Fueglistaler, S.,Bonazzola, M., Haynes, P. H. & Peter, T. Stratospheric water vapor predicted from the Lagrangian temperature history of air entering the stratosphere in the tropics. Geophys. Res. 110, D08107 (2005).
- Schoeberl, M. R.& Dessler, A. E. Dehydration of the stratosphere. Chem. Phys. 11,8433–8446 (2011).
- Liu, Y. S.,Fueglistaler, S. & Haynes P. H. Advection–condensation paradigm for stratospheric water vapor. Geophys. Res. 115, D24307 (2010).
- Ploeger, F.,Konopka, P., Günther, G., Gross, J-U. & Müller, R. Impact of the vertical velocity scheme on modeling transport in the tropical tropopause layer. Geophys. Res. 115,D03301 (2010).
- Hartmann, D. L.,Holton, J. R. & Fu, Q. The heat balance of the tropical tropopause, cirrus, and stratospheric dehydration. Res. Lett. 28, 1969–1972 (2001).
- Corti, T.,Luo, B. P., Fu, Q., Vömel, H. & Peter, T. The impact of cirrus clouds on tropical troposphere-to-stratosphere transport. Chem. Phys. 6, 2539–2547 (2006).
- Schoeberl, M. R.,Dessler, A. E. & Wang, T. Simulation of stratospheric water vapor trends using three reanalyses. Chem. Phys. 12, 6475–6487 (2012).
- Park, M.,Randel, W. J., Gettelman, A., Massie, S. T. & Jiang, J. H. Transport above the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone inferred from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder tracers. Geophys. Res. 112, D16309 (2007).
- Baker, A. K.et al. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbon in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft. Chem. Phys. 11, 503–518 (2011).
- Vernier, J.-P.,Thomason, L. W. & Kar, J. CALIPSO detection of an Asian tropopause aerosol layer. Res. Lett. 38, L07804 (2011).
- Randel, W. J.et al. Asian monsoon transport of pollution to the stratosphere. Science 328,611–613 (2010).
- Bourassa, A. E.et al. Large volcanic aerosol load in the stratosphere linked to Asian monsoon transport. Science 337, 78–81 (2012).
- Koop, T.,Luo, B., Tsias, A. & Peter, T. Water activity as the determinant for homogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions. Nature 406, 611–614 (2000)
- Jensen, E. J.& Pfister, L. Transport and freeze-drying in the tropical tropopause layer. Geophys. Res. 109, D02207 (2004).
- Krämer, M.et al. Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud crystal numbers. Chem. Phys.9, 3305–3522 (2009).
- DeMott, P. J.et al. Measurements of the concentration and composition of ice nuclei for cirrus formation. Natl Acad. Sci. 100, 14655–14660 (2003).
- Lawson.et al. Aircraft measurements of microphysical properties of subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer. Chem. Phys. 8, 1609–1620 (2008).
- Oltmans, S. J.& Rosenlof, K. H. SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapor (eds Kley, D., Russell, J. M. & Phillips, C.) (World Climate Research Program, 2000).
- Weinstock, E. M.et al. Validation of the Harvard Lyman-α in situ water vapor instrument: Implications for the mechanisms that control stratospheric water vapor. Geophys. Res.114, D23301 (2009).
- Vömel, H.et al. Balloon-borne observations of water vapor and ozone in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Geophys. Res. 107, 4210 (2002).
- Davis, S.et al. In situ and lidar observations of tropopause subvisible cirrus clouds during TC4. Geophys. Res. 115, D00J17 (2010).
- Jensen, E. J.et al. Ice nucleation and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer. Natl Acad. Sci. 110, 2041–2046 (2013).
- Butchart, N.et al. Chemistry–climate model simulations of twenty-first century stratospheric climate and circulation changes. Clim. 23, 5349–5374 (2010).
- Randel, W. J.& and Thompson, A. M. Interannual variability and trends in tropical ozone derived from SAGE II satellite data and SHADOZ ozonesondes. Geophys. Res. 116,D07303 (2011).
- Free, M.The seasonal structure of temperature trends in the tropical lower stratosphere. Clim. 24, 859–866 (2011).
- Hurst, D. F.et al. Stratospheric water vapor trends over Boulder, Colorado: Analysis of the 30 year Boulder record. Geophys. Res. 116, D02306 (2011).
- Gettelman, A.et al. Multimodel assessment of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Tropics and global trends. Geophys. Res. 115, D00M08 (2010).
- Wang, J. S.,Seidel, D. J. & Free, M. How well do we know recent climate trends at the tropical tropopause? Geophys. Res. 117, D09118 (2012).
- Randel, W. J.in The Stratosphere: Dynamics, Transport and Chemistry (eds Polvani, L. M., Sobel, A. H. & Waugh, D. W.) 123–135 (Geophysical Monograph Series 190, American Geophysical Union, 2010).
1. National Center for Atmospheric Research, PO Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307, USA
William J. Randel
2. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA
Eric J. Jensen
Readers: Please feel free to circulate this article! Share it with your friends, family, and of course on social media websites. If this article catches a trolls attention, walk away. This article contains months of research, so let them sit on it for a while before debating the facts with them
AUTHOR Lopez is a published author and recording artist. She has appeared in several documentaries, and has been interviewed by KPHO, LA TIMES, CBS NEWS, along with countless other radio and TV talk shows. THE TRUTH DENIED Tabloid is a small volunteer organization of investigative writers and is featured on thousands of websites worldwide!
Lopez has been reaching out to the public most of her adult life regarding many subject matters that revolve around government secrecies such as GMO’s, UFO Sightings, Morgellons Disease ,and Chemtrails, just to name a few. Lopez states that “The TRUTH has been DENIED us all, and in this current age of technology we now afford the right to access it once and for all.”
The Truth Denied acquired worldwide attention when Lopez made a global stance against Geoengineering (aka Chemtrails), GMO’s, Fracking , environmental health hazards, Morgellons Disease, Gang stalking and illegal government surveillance programs that are increasingly on the up rise. Roxy opens the can of worms to the secrets that the Global Government is keeping from us all.